The IT community still suffers from gender discrimination
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February 11, 2016
There's no question that the information technology industry still suffers from gender inequality, and most women in
the community will honestly tell you.
A new study reveals that women are more likely than men to have their open-source software contributions
accepted, but only when their gender is hidden from project leaders.
The study from North Carolina State University and Cal Poly examined code committed by more
than 1.4 million GitHub users and their contributions to various open-source projects on the
source-code repository service.
The researchers found that women have their pull requests (or suggested changes to code) accepted
by project owners more often than men overall across all programming languages, but with one important
caveat-- acceptance rates for women drop lower than those of men when their gender is disclosed.
This may not come as a surprise to some, but in a world where gender discrimination is increasingly frown upon
is disconcerting when compared to other industries where there is less inequality.
The study separated profiles into two categories: gender neutral profiles where the profile name and
generic image hid the user gender, and gendered profiles where a user photo and a gendered user name
would identify the gender.
The results showed that when gender-neutral profiles were analysed, accounts belonging to women achieved
higher acceptance rates than those owned by men.
However, when the gendered profiles were analysed, the results showed that project owners were more
apt to accept pull requests from men.
The researchers also noted that familiarity plays a major role in showing the bias. When contributions
from "insiders" who were known and trusted within a project were analysed, the gender differences
disappeared, for the most part.
It's when analyzing "outsider" pull requests from people not well known to the project that the disparity
between the genders became truly apparent, and men were shown to be more likely to have requests accepted.
As a whole, women contribute more successful submissions to GitHub than men do, but when faced with
the choice between the submissions of a man and a woman, a project leader is more apt to use code from a
As a result, the researchers suggest that overall, the women contributing code to GitHub are more competent
than their male counterparts, with the theory being that higher attrition rates for women in the lower
levels of STEM careers lead to higher levels of average training and experience.
Despite all of this, the researchers also conclude that women are still seen as less competent than
men and, when competing on projects, are at a disadvantage on several occasions.
"While our big data study does not definitely prove that differences between gendered interactions
are caused by bias among individuals, the trends observed in this paper are troubling," the paper
"The frequent refrain that open source is a pure meritocracy must be reexamined," the report added. The study is titled 'Gender
bias in open source: Pull request acceptance of women versus men', was written by Josh Terrell, Andrew Kofink,
Justin Middleton, Clarissa Rainear, Emerson Murphy-Hill and Chris Parnin.
Source: North Carolina State University.
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